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By now we have covered nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, gerunds, and participles — all of which vary their endings. What is left are particles, those words, usually short, that do not inflect, that have one unvarying form. They are equivalent to English prepositions, conjunctions, nonderived adverbs, and interjections.


Prepositions serve to relate noun phrases to the rest of the sentence. As such they function like the cases, and supplement them, expressing relations that the limited number of cases cannot. For the most part, they must only be used in association with particular noun cases; those that can occur in different environments may change meanings when used with different cases. In particular, prepositions that refer strictly to position with the locative indicate direction of motion when used with the accusative or genitive.

With the Nominative

o: O (particle of direct address — it's optional)

With the Genitive

eş: from, than
út: out of
apo: off of
uper: from above
upo: from under

With the Dative

pir: for
opi: against

With the Accusative

en: into
na: onto
opi: against, toward
sór: in front of
ghó: behind
uper: (to) over, up
upo: (to) under, down
ol: beyond, past
medhi: into the middle/midst of
trán across, over, through
su: like, as

With the Instrumental

com: with
uí: without
şun: with, by means of
celu: due to
regu: according to

With the Locative

en: in, inside, within
út: outside
na: on
opi: on, against
apo: off, not on
prí: before
ante: before
pos: after
sór: in front of
ghó: behind
uper: over, above
upo: under, below
ol: beyond, past
ambi: around, surrounding, on both sides
medhi: among, between
at: near, by

Other Particles

á: but
ey: and
ul: either, or
nul: neither, nor
ti: that
proti: in order that
í: if
blé: very
áy: alas! woe!

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© 2005 by Damátir Ando